Hypnose et Médecine

Une vieille histoire…, un bel avenir


Comme je sais que mes confrères sont friands de ce genre de choses, j’ai sélectionné quelques références d’articles parmi d’autres sur les thèmes les moins évidents…comme les plus reconnus.

La douleur

est sûrement le domaine de reconnaissance le plus évident dans le domaine médical.

Parce que si vous faites hypnosis et pain sur pubmed, vous allez tomber sur plus de 1200 articles dont moins de 10% ne concernent pas l’hypnose dont nous parlons, il est difficile de faire un choix surtout que le plus intéressant n’est pas toujours le plus récent…

Quand même une courte sélection d’articles davantage orientés sur la physiologie ou sous forme de revue. De telles publications foisonnent depuis l’après guerre.

1: Feldman JB.
The neurobiology of pain, affect and hypnosis. Am J Clin Hypn. 2004 Jan;46(3):187-200.  PMID: 15190725 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Tan G, Hammond DC, Joseph G.
Hypnosis and irritable bowel syndrome: a review of efficacy and mechanism of action.  Am J Clin Hypn. 2005 Jan;47(3):161-78. Review. PMID: 15754863 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Faymonville ME.
Cerebral mechanisms of hypnosis. Bull Mem Acad R Med Belg. 2004;159(7-9):447-60; discussion 460-3. French. PMID: 15830595 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Jambrik Z, Santarcangelo EL, Rudisch T, Varga A, Forster T, Carli G.
Modulation of pain-induced endothelial dysfunction by hypnotisability.  Pain. 2005 Aug;116(3):181-6. PMID: 15979790 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Kupers R, Faymonville ME, Laureys S.
The cognitive modulation of pain: hypnosis- and placebo-induced analgesia. Prog Brain Res. 2005;150:251-69. Review. PMID: 16186029 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Richard P.
Hypnosis, child and pain. Arch Pediatr. 2006 Jun;13(6):660-2.  Epub 2006 May 12. French. No abstract available. PMID: 16697600 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Faymonville ME, Boly M, Laureys S.
Functional neuroanatomy of the hypnotic state. J Physiol Paris. 2006 Jun;99(4-6):463-9. Epub 2006 Jun 5. Review. PMID: 16750615 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Castel A, Pérez M, Sala J, Padrol A, Rull M.
Effect of hypnotic suggestion on fibromyalgic pain: comparison between hypnosis and relaxation.  Eur J Pain. 2007 May;11(4):463-8. Epub 2006 Aug 4. PMID: 16889999 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Röder CH, Michal M, Overbeck G, van de Ven VG, Linden DE.
Pain response in depersonalization: a functional imaging study using hypnosis in healthy subjects.  Psychother Psychosom. 2007;76(2):115-21. PMID: 17230052 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

10: Montgomery GH, Bovbjerg DH, Schnur JB, David D, Goldfarb A, Weltz CR, Schechter C, Graff-Zivin J, Tatrow K, Price DD, Silverstein JH.
A randomized clinical trial of a brief hypnosis intervention to control side effects in breast surgery patients.  J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Sep 5;99(17):1304-12. Epub 2007 Aug 28. PMID: 17728216 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

11: Watanabe S, Hattori T, Kanazawa M, Kano M, Fukudo S.
Role of histaminergic neurons in hypnotic modulation of brain processing of visceral perception.  Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2007 Oct;19(10):831-8. PMID: 17883434 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Dans le contexte de la maternité

Am J Clin Hypn. 2007 Oct;50(2):109-19.

Hypnosis for childbirth: a retrospective comparative analysis of outcomes in one obstetrician’s practice.
VandeVusse L, Irland J, Healthcare WF, Berner MA, Fuller S, Adams D.
Marquette University College of Nursing, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881, USA. leona.vandevusse@mu.edu

This exploratory, descriptive study, done retrospectively from perinatal medical records, compared childbirth outcomes in one obstetrician’s caseload between 50 women who elected antepartal hypnosis preparation (usually a 5-class series) and 51 who did not. The groups were demographically similar. To achieve similar numbers to the hypnosis group, the control group was randomly selected from the women in the caseload who opted not to take hypnosis preparation, based on characteristics of parity and delivery mode. Prenatal hypnosis preparation resulted in significantly less use of sedatives, analgesia, and regional anesthesia during labor and in higher 1-minute neonatal Apgar scores. Other physiologic and outcome measures did not reveal statistical significance, although some trends were of clinical interest. Well-controlled studies are warranted for clinicians to offer hypnosis more frequently as a pain relief option for childbirth. Additional information provided includes pragmatic, clinical, and cost information about incorporating hypnosis into a physician’s practice.

PMID: 18030923 [PubMed – in process]

1: Brown DC, Hammond DC.
Evidence-based clinical hypnosis for obstetrics, labor and delivery, and preterm labor.  Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2007 Jul;55(3):355-71. Review.PMID: 17558723 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Hypnose et fonction immunitaire

Un petit exemple de l’impact immunitaire et endocrinien de certaines suggestions hypnotiques.

Hypnosis, differential expression of cytokines by T-cell subsets, and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.
Wood GJ, Bughi S, Morrison J, Tanavoli S, Tanavoli S, Zadeh HH
University of Southern California, USA. gwood@usc.edu

This investigation tested the hypothesis that hypnosis can differentially modulate T-cell subsets, and that this effect is mediated by changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) mediators. Seven healthy, highly hypnotizable volunteers participated in three one-day sessions, a baseline and two intervention sessions. Hypnosis intervention entailed a standardized induction, suggestions for ego strengthening and optimally balanced functioning of the immune and neuroendocrine systems, and post-hypnotic suggestions for stress management and continued optimal balance of bodily systems. Blood samples were drawn at five time points between 8:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. and were analyzed for T-cell activation and intracellular cytokine expression (Interferon (IFN)-gamma, Interleukin-2, Interleukin-4) and HPA axis mediators (ACTH, cortisol, and beta-endorphin). Following hypnosis intervention, statistically significant immunological effects were noted. Specifically, the proportion of T-cells expressing IFN-gamma (p = .0001) and IL-2 (p = .013) were lower after hypnosis. T-cell activation response to polyclonal stimulation was positively correlated with ACTH (p = .01) and beta-endorphin (p = .001) while IFN-gamma expression was correlated with levels of cortisol (p < .001). Further controlled studies utilizing hypnosis with patients in treatment are warranted in order to examine whether an altered T-cell response can be replicated in the presence of disease.

PMID: 12570090 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Et quelques autres

1: Kraemer WJ, Lewis RV, Triplett NT, Koziris LP, Heyman S, Noble BJ.
Effects of hypnosis on plasma proenkephalin peptide F and perceptual and cardiovascular responses during submaximal exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;65(6):573-8. PMID: 1483448 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Zachariae R, Bjerring P, Zachariae C, Arendt-Nielsen L, Nielsen T, Eldrup E, Larsen CS, Gotliebsen K.
Monocyte chemotactic activity in sera after hypnotically induced emotional states. Scand J Immunol. 1991 Jul;34(1):71-9. PMID: 2068533 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Wyler-Harper J, Bircher AJ, Langewitz W, Kiss A.
Hypnosis and the allergic response.  Schweiz Med Wochenschr Suppl. 1994;62:67-76. Review. PMID: 8073242 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Ruzyla-Smith P, Barabasz A, Barabasz M, Warner D.
Effects of hypnosis on the immune response: B-cells, T-cells, helper and suppressor cells.  Am J Clin Hypn. 1995 Oct;38(2):71-9. PMID: 8871356 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Fox PA, Henderson DC, Barton SE, Champion AJ, Rollin MS, Catalan J, McCormack SM, Gruzelier J.
Immunological markers of frequently recurrent genital herpes simplex virus and their response to hypnotherapy: a pilot study.  Int J STD AIDS. 1999 Nov;10(11):730-4. PMID: 10563560 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Marucha PT, Atkinson C, Glaser R.
Hypnosis as a modulator of cellular immune dysregulation during acute stress.  J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001 Aug;69(4):674-82. PMID: 11550733 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Gruzelier JH.
A review of the impact of hypnosis, relaxation, guided imagery and individual differences on aspects of immunity and health.  Stress. 2002 Jun;5(2):147-63. Review. PMID: 12186693 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Naito A, Laidlaw TM, Henderson DC, Farahani L, Dwivedi P, Gruzelier JH.
The impact of self-hypnosis and Johrei on lymphocyte subpopulations at exam time: a controlled study.  Brain Res Bull. 2003 Dec 30;62(3):241-53. PMID: 14698357 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Ces quelques éléments épars mêlent des études cliniques et fondamentales mettant en évidence l’impact qu’est susceptible d’avoir l’hypnose sur la fonction immunitaire… ça laisse rêveur, mais il y a encore du travail pour passer du rêve à la réalité dans un grand nombre de situations.

La suite …